In the following page I will be adding information on understanding the impact of prejudicial behavior. I plan to have this page grow over time and anyone wishing to submit information on a study is welcome to email that information to me.

Discrimination and education:
1. Fewer Underrepresented Minorites in Medical Schools
Recent gains in medical school enrollment of underrepresented minorities are being reversed, particularly at public institutions. Implications exist for the health of poor, minority, and underserved communities, which are more likely to be cared for by underrepresented minority physicians.

The decline was almost entirely in public medical schools. The states of California, Texas, Mississippi, and Louisiana accounted for 44% of the 1996 decline.

David M. Carlisle, MD, PhD, Jill E. Gardner, BS, and Honghu Liu, PhD : The Entry of Underrepresented Minority Students Into US Medical Schools: An Evaluation of Recent Trends:(Am J Public Health. 1998;88:1314­1318)

For more information in this area I would suggest the web site by the

2. Our public schools are becoming resegregated. A recent study by the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University found that US schools are becoming increasingly more segregated. While the movement to desegregate the public schools started in the 1950s and continued until the late '80s the current tend has been to move toward more segregation in the public schools. and we have reached a level that is now more segregated than it has been in three decades.

Discrimination and employment:

To get a view of some of the current happenings in discrinimation in the workplace you might look at the site for

Discrimination and health care:

1. Black Women Less Often Advised To Undergo Mammography Than Whites
Compared to white women, black women reported less often that doctors referred them for mammography. This study suggests that this may be part of the reason that black women have a higher mortality rate for breast cancer.

The National Cancer Institute and the University of North Carolina Specialized Program of Research Excellence in Breast Cancer supported the UNC-CH research.

2. Racial Differences in Access to High-Quality Cardiac Surgeons
This study suggests that the quality of CABG service providers is lower and less frequent for non white than for white patients.

Dana B. Mukamel, PhD, Ananthram S. Murthy, BA, and David L. Weimer, PhD (Am J Public Health.

3. Effects of Health Insurance and Race on Colorectal Cancer Treatments and Outcomes

Colorectal cancer patients with fee-for-service insurance were shown to have lower mortality rates. African American patients showed a higher mortality rate.

Richard G. Roetzheim, MD, MSPH, Naazneen Pal, MPH, Eduardo C. Gonzalez, MD, Jeanne M. Ferrante, MD, Daniel J. Van Durme, MD, and Jeffrey P. Krischer, PhD (Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1746-1754)

4. Well Child Care in the United States: Racial Differences in Compliance With Guidelines
In this study inadequate infant care was highest among African Americans. This study concluded that cultural barriers were more significant factors than socioeconomic factors for this group of infants.

Donna S. Ronsaville, PhD, and Rosemarie B. Hakim, PhD (Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1436-1443)

5. Treatment Of Kidney Disease In Children Varies By Race

Black children with kidney disease of all age groupings studied were more likely to be on hemodialysis than on peritoneal dialysis treatment.

Susan L. Furth, M.D., Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center

6. Race and Mammography Use in Two North Carolina Counties
This study showed a significantly lower rate of recommendation by physicians for mammography for detection of breast cancer among black women patients than among white women.

Michael S. O'Malley, PhD, Jo Anne L. Earp, ScD, and Russell P. Harris, MD, MPH (Am J Public Health. 1997;87:782-786)

7. An Experimental Analysis of Sociocultural Variables in Sales of Cigarettes to Minors
Factors in this study which increased with the sale of cigarettes to children included ethnic group, with black children and then hispanic children being more likely to be sold cigarettes than white children.

Elizabeth A. Klonoff, PhD, Hope Landrine, PhD, and Roxanna Alcaraz, MA . (Am J Public Health. 1997;87:823-826)

8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Cardiovascular Procedures: Associations with Type of Health Insurance
A study of patients showed that cardiovascular procedures were less likely to be used for African American and for Latino patients, except when patients had private insurance and the rates were similar to those for white patients..

David M. Carlisle, MD, PhD, Barbara D. Leake, PhD, and Martin F. Shapiro, MD, PhD (Am J Public Health. 1997;87:263-267)

9. The Prevalence of Hypertension in Seven Populations of West African Origin

This study demonstrated the significance of socio-environmental factors in hypertension risk in subject of West African ethnicity. Reporting a higher level of hypertension for among people of West African origin who live in the United States than among populations of West African origin who live in Africa or the Caribbean.

Richard Cooper, MD, Charles Rotimi, PhD, Susan Ataman, MPH, Daniel McGee, PhD, Babatunde Osotimehin, MD, Solomon Kadiri, MD, Walinjom Muna, MD, PhD, Samuel Kingue, MD, Henry Fraser, MD, Terrence Forrester, MD, Franklyn Bennett, PhD, and Rainford Wilks, MD(Am J Public Health. 1997;87:160-

10. Racial Discrimination and Blood Pressure: The CARDIA Study of Young Black and White Adults
This study demonstrated the negative impact on blood pressure of racial discrimination. The Blacks who challenged racial discrimination had lower blood pressure than those who attempted to accept unfair treatment in both working class and professional socioeconomic levels.

Nancy Krieger, PhD, and Stephen Sidney, MD, (Am J Public Health. 1996;86:1370-1378)

11. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Children's Access to Care
Researchers concluded that the factor which seems to account for the reduced access to medical care among Hispanic children compared to white children is language ability.

Robin M. Weinick, PhD, and Nancy A. Krauss, MS (Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1771-1774)

12. Racial Differences in Access to High-Quality Cardiac Surgeons
This study demonstrated that non-white patients were less likely than white patients to have access to higher quality cardiac surgeons.

Dana B. Mukamel, PhD, Ananthram S. Murthy, BA, and David L. Weimer, PhD (Am J Public Health.

13. Psychotherapy and discrimination
There are over 80 studies showing that psychotherapists, discriminate. Ridley lists the following decision points which are open to the influence of prejudicial stereotypes: diagnoses, prognoses, referrals, treatment planning, selection of interventions, frequency of treatment, termination, medical therapy, reporting abuse or neglect, duty to warn, involuntary commitment, deciding the importance of case history data, interpreting test data. To these this writer would add: seeking
consultation, developing empathy, expressing support, advocating for the client and identifying with a client's issues.

Ridley, Charles R. 1995, Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner’s Guide to Intentional Intervention, Sage

For more information on this subject one good resource is the site

Discrimination and housing:
1. Racial discrimination in housing
Samuel Myers and Tsze Chan did an number of empirical measures to detect discrimination in housing loans and concluded that 70% of the racial gap in loan denial rates were accounted for by racially discriminatory lending practices. Differences in bad credit risk accounted for only 8% of the nondiscriminatory portion of the racial gap in lending.

Myers, Samuel L.; Chan, Tsze, Social Science Quarterly,1995 Sep Vol 76(3) 543-561

If you would like help in this area a good resource is the web site by

Discrimination and the law:
In a land where we talk about being equal under the law these studies show it is still only a dream.
1. Driving While Black:
David A. Harris of the University of Toledo did a study on interstate highway 95 using video tapes that were made of the officers stopping motorists. It was discovered that while Blacks make up 5% of the motorists on Interstate 95 they accounted for 80% of those being stopped by the officers. This occurred even when only 5% of those stopped were arrested or charged.

This means that while Whites or Non Blacks make up 95% of the drivers on Interstate Highway 95 they were subjected to only 20% of the stops by officers. If my math is correct that means that the Blacks were 7,600% more likely to be stopped than Whites.

The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology titled "Driving While Black" and All Other Traffic Offenses: Volume 87, Number 2

2. Drug usage and the law:
While 74% of those who are sentenced to prison for drug usage are Black it is interesting to look at what this really means. The U.S. Public Health Service has estimated that African Americans account for 14% of the drug users. African Americans account for 35% of those who are arrested for drug usage and African Americans account for 55% of those who are convicted. Yes, African Americans do make up 74% of those who are serving time for drug usage but it seems to be more a problem of enforcement practices rather than reflecting the rate of drug usage.

David Cole, Professor of Law, Georgetown University, gave these numbers while speaking on National Public Radio’s Morning Edition June 10th 1999.

These numbers and the sources are given in David Cole’s Book, No Equal Justice

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Understanding Prejudicial Behavior

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