Correct!

1. Punishing those who behave in prejudicial ways is impossible since most prejudicial behavior is difficult to observe or prove. Research has shown that those who are most prejudiced have generally received more punishment than most of us.

Additional information:
From the early research on those who are strongly prejudiced to the more recent research punishment has been shown to be more frequent in the backgrounds of those who are strongly prejudiced.

Allport, Gordon (1954), The Nature of Prejudice. Addison Wesley Publishing Company

Oliner, Samuel P., and Oliner, Pearl, 1988 The Altruistic Personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi Europe. New York: Free Press

Straus, Murray A. Beating The Devil Out of Them, Corporal Punishment in American Families

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Correct!
2. Diversity training should not be required because it is not standardized nor has it been shown to be effective in any controlled studies. There is even evidence that some forms of diversity training actually increase prejudicial behavior among some populations. However, there are some types of training that are highly effective in developing people´s ability to communicate cross culturally and to have a greater sense of empathy with people who are different from themselves.

Additional information:
There is evidence that those who are strongly prejudiced may become more prejudiced or more acting out in situations where they are feeling a pressure to be more tolerant. Diversity training that stimulates guilt without giving people direction and skills only increases the tension and produces "stage fright" or anxiety within those who want to be less prejudice.

Macrae, C. Neil & Bodenhausen, Galen V. & Milne, Alan B. & Jetten, Jolanda "Out of Mind but Back in Sight: Stereotypes on the Rebound," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1994, Vol. 67, No. 5, 808-817

Monteith, Margo J. & Devine, Patricia G. & Zuwerink, J. R. "Self-Directed Versus Other- Directed Affect as a Consequence of Prejudice-Related Discrepancies," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1993, Vol. 64, No. 2, 198-210

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Correct!
3. If one thinks prejudicial thoughts, one should not suppress them. One should actively replace prejudicial thoughts with more positive images of the group members about whom one has thought prejudicially.

Additional information:
There has been one study that seems to show that if you repress a prejudicial thought it will rebound with greater strength. For a brief summary of this information you can go to the Trainer Alert.

Macrae, C. Neil & Bodenhausen, Galen V.& Milne, Alan B. & Jetten, Jolanda "Out of Mind but Back in Sight: Stereotypes on the Rebound" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 67, No. 5, 808-817

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Correct!
4) Prejudices cost our society and therefore are a real economic problem for all of us, not just those who are the victims of the prejudicial behavior. The cost of sexism and racism alone have been estimated at over one half a trillion dollars per year.

Additional information:
Joint Economic Committee, The Cost of Racial Discrimination (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980), p.2

James, Estelle,. "Income and Employment Effects of Women's Liberation." in Sex, Discrimination, and the Division of Labor, ed. Lloyd, Cynthia B. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1975), p. 406

Sharp, Ansel M., and Register, Charles A., and Leftwich, Richard H.. Economics of Social Issues, Irwin

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Understanding Prejudicial Behavior

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